Sex offenders and compulsive behavior patters

These problems also create stress for the caregiver in caring for these children and can lead to problematic parent-child interaction. Behavior problems, including sexual behavior problems, are the primary reasons why foster parents request that children be removed, and placed in another home, putting these children at risk for further behavior problems, as well as creating attachment difficulties. Social and developmental factors must be considered when comparing children with sexual behavior problems to adult or adolescent sexual offenders.

Children have limited cognitive development, thus they have a limited repertoire of coping strategies. Masturbation as a self-soothing strategy may occur more often in small children during times of stress. When compared to adult sex offenders, children with sexual behavior problems are more likely to engage in impulsive sexual activity rather than well-planned or rationalized acts. The failure of young children to empathize may not be pathological, but merely a product of development.

Another difference between children and adolescents or adults is that the vast majority of adult and adolescent sexual offenders are male. Various criteria for levels of intervention have been proposed regarding children with sexual behavior problems. Researchers found that adverse childhood experiences varied considerably across ethnicities and type of crime, but noted that adverse childhood experiences were strongly and positively associated with sexual offending.

These findings suggest that JSBPs are generally more likely to have experienced some form of child abuse or an adverse childhood experience than non-sexual juvenile offenders. Furthermore, the greater the amount of childhood adversity and abuse experienced, the greater the likelihood of the youth to offend later in life, placing JSBPs at a greater risk.

In terms of sexual violence, many researchers have discovered that various adverse childhood experiences, particularly childhood sexual abuse, increases the likelihood of committing sexual crimes in adolescence or later Drury et al. Looman, ; McCuish et al. Not only are adverse experiences and trauma linked to later offending, extant literature has revealed that childhood abuse is also associated with increased mental health problems Boonmann et al.

Boonmann et al. Youth were examined in order to explore the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and mental health problems in juveniles with sexual behavior problems. These researchers found that in their sample, sexual abuse was related to anger problems, suicidal ideation, and thought disturbance. These correlations were significantly stronger in JSBPs than in non-sexual juvenile offenders Boonmann et al.

This corroborates earlier claims that JSBPs who have a history of child abuse, may suffer from more salient internalizing and externalizing mental health problems.

Using the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 MAYSI-2 , Boonmann and colleagues found that young JSBPs were less likely to report anger-irritability or substance misuse, but convicted and detained young sex offenders expressed higher levels of mental health problems compared to non-sexually offending youth. Doreleijers as cited in Boonmann et al. This hypothesis in conjunction with findings on adverse childhood experiences would suggest that juveniles with sexual behavior problems in secure-care settings would exhibit a higher prevalence of mental health problems.

Studies have also corroborated that JSBPs tend to express lower rates of alcohol problems, drug problems, and anti-social involvement Boonmann et al. There are varying and even contradictory opinions with regards to factors that characterize juveniles with sexual behavior problems. The pattern of greater mental health problems, behavioral problems, and interpersonal problems characteristic of JSBPs has some links with psychopathy.

Features such as deceit, manipulation, lack of empathic understanding, and consistent engagement in antisocial behaviors are all consistent with psychopathic traits and explanations of the coercion and aggression often used by juveniles with sexual behavior problems Cale et al. In a sample of JSBPs and juvenile non-sex offenders, Cale and Colleagues found that JSBPs had significantly higher rates of psychopathy compared to violent, non-violent, and chronic juveniles with non-sexual behavior problems.

Familial dysfunction often lends to JSBPs reporting feelings of worthlessness and fears of being rejected, and having underdeveloped social and coping skills compared to peers Underwood et al. Extent literature suggests that JSBPs hold maladaptive value systems founded on faulty thought patterns, cognitive distortions, or thinking errors generally learned from interpersonal relationships Apsche et al. This emotional deficit and maladaptive concept is often indicative of some underlying mental health disorder.

Constitutional Foundations

Much research has suggested that JSBPs do suffer from a significant range of mental health and substance use disorders Apsche et al. In addition, JSBPs who have committed child molestation or rape, have a higher risk of recidivating for both sexual offenses and non-sexual crimes e. Trauma, childhood abuse, and adverse childhood experiences increases the possibility of youth externalizing their symptoms and engaging in various types of antisocial behavior.

This possibility is even greater for juveniles with sexual behavior problems. It may be even more problematic for JSBPs in residential or secure-care facilities.

Compulsive-Repetitive Offenders

As such, these highlight the need for treatment programming to be able to address some of these underlying psychosocial factors. The general tenets of juvenile justice administrators include rehabilitation, control, and custody. These emphases have led to the need to implement best-practice and evidence-based treatment interventions to juvenile offenders Underwood and Knight, Additionally, many incarcerated youth, including JSBPs, may have learning or intellectual disorders, or may have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences or significant traumatic events Bailey et al.

Finally, the interpersonal and behavioral deficits commonly associated with JSBPs, suggest that treatment must provide some development of prosocial skills. An intervention program consisting of cognitive-behavioral interventions within a multisystemic or integrated approach carried out within an institutional setting, may best allow for justice to maintain its tenets of retribution, deterrence, and rehabilitation. A multisystemic treatment approach may include, individual, group, and or family therapy within various types of settings residential or community.

A mixture of these treatment modalities to include individual, group, and family therapy has been deemed an effective approach in addressing the various emotional, social, and behavioral needs of juveniles with sexual behavioral problems Borduin et al. Literature on the treatment of JSBPs indicates that cognitive behavioral models show the greatest effectiveness for offenders involved in multidimensional programs Underwood and Knight, The Louisiana OJJ found that JSBPs received inconsistent or confusing care, and that youth may have spent much time in secure-care when a less restrictive setting would have been optimal Crump et al.

Additionally, due to community care limitations, the continuity of care for JSBPs was often inadequate Crump et al. In efforts to carry out the mission of effective care and limited harm, the OJJ has reserved secure-care for youth with a greater risk of reoffending, and community-care for youth who pose a lesser risk Crump et al. Juveniles in secure-care receive comprehensive psychosexual assessments, and those with lower risk levels receive treatment in a clinic-based format i.

Individual and group therapy is provided to JSBPs one to two times weekly and family therapy is provided monthly Crump et al. Higher risks JSBPs receive individual, group and family therapy with more intensity, frequency, and duration. Group therapy is conducted in three phases of 12 to 16 weeks each. This program is a multi-faceted treatment process that takes the youth through an initial phase of screening and assessment, through behavioral health treatment interventions, leading to admission for successful discharge from the program.

The Logic of Sexually Violent Predator Status in the United States of America

Behavioral health treatment interventions utilized within the program include 1 individual counseling and case management, 2 family interventions, and 3 crisis intervention services. Individual counseling targets individual behavioral deficits, distortions, and developmental needs and fosters the skills required by individual residents to manage and cope with different persons, places, and situations.

Individual case management helps map out individual responses in crisis situations, reinforces the use of behavioral management skills and addresses other needs that are not appropriate for group skills training. Family interventions are designed to engage family members or legal guardians in the treatment process.

Crisis intervention services are also available on a continuous basis to any youth who is experiencing acute distress. The program was designed to enhance recognition of appropriate sexual boundaries and bolster emotional stability and self-control, addressing the various problem areas relevant to juveniles with sexual behavior problems.

Sexual addiction - Wikipedia

This study examined whether juveniles with sexual behavior problems receiving LSOTP services at two secure-care facilities experienced positive changes in psychosocial factors over time. Specifically, it was hypothesized that juveniles with sexual behavior problems involved in LSOT programming would: 1 Experience a decrease in reported depression symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2, 2 Experience a decrease in reported anxiety symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2, and 3 Experience decreased cognitive distortions related to rape and molestation.

The rationale for this research design is based on the nature of the data and the setting. Several years ago, Louisiana Office of Juvenile Justices moved that all treatment programs utilize this same integrated treatment program. As such, it was not possible to have a manipulated treatment group. Additionally, all adjudicated JSBPs receive services in secure-care settings, unless the youth refuses to participate, services were deemed unnecessary, or the youth was removed from treatment i. Participants in this study were recruited from a convenience sample of 55 adjudicated male JSBPs between the ages of 12 and 19 years of age residing at two secure care facilities in southeastern USA.

Prior to the initial site visit, guardian consent for each youth to participate in the study was obtained by the facility. Upon the initial site visit, the purpose of the study, activities involved in participation, and the voluntariness of participation was described to all adjudicated youth at both sites in groups of 5 to 10 youth. At that time youth gave assent to participate in writing, but were reminded that they could discontinue participating in the study at any time.


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For inclusion in this study, the participant must have signed consent and assent forms, must have been 19 years old or younger, mandated to participate in treatment, be adjudicated for a sexual offense, and complete assessment measures for both Time 1 and Time 2. The sample was initially comprised of 52 adolescent males, as 3 chose not to participate.

Sex Addiction vs. Sexual Offending

An additional 19 youth were removed from analysis as they did not participate in testing at Time 2. While the sample size is considered small, it is reflective of other quasi-experimental designs with juvenile sex offenders. Karakosta , Boonmann et al. Grade level ranged from 6th to 12th grade. At the time of assessment, four distinct groups of youth emerged based on the amount of time they have spent in the treatment program. A Human Services Review Committee was reviewed and approved this study, ensuring for safeguards and human protection factors.

Prior to the initial site visit, the Louisiana OJJ sought and provided consent for youth to participate in the current study should he choose to do so. Upon the initial site visit, the researchers provided adjudicated JSBPs at both sites with an introduction to the research purpose and activities related to involvement.

Participants were informed that regardless of their involvement, they would continue to receive LSOTP services. Youth were also assured that they were not required to participate in the study, that participation was strictly voluntary, and that they were able to discontinue participation at any time throughout the study.

Participants were informed that each individual would be assessed via several self-report measures at 12 to 13 week intervals. Youth were also assured that strict confidentiality would be maintained throughout the study by use of a numerical coding system. After asking and answering any follow up questions, written assent was obtained from those volunteering to participate in the study.

All team members were instructed on how to describe informed assent, and they were instructed to collect all assent forms from all participants before proceeding with assessment. Juveniles with significant learning, cognitive, or attention deficits were identified by group case workers, and they were provided a separate space for more one-to-one help with a research team member. Recidivism included sexual offenses any offense that is sexual in nature and nonsexual offenses any type of offense that cannot be considered sexual in nature. The data were collected on sex offenders who were released from the ADTC or prison from to The follow-up timeframe ranged from 7 years for the released offenders to 4 years for the released offenders.

Zgoba and Simon found that age at the time of release was also significantly related to the probability of sex-offense recidivism. Males aged 20—40 have considerably higher rates of sexually reoffending than males over Males aged 31—40 are 4. Additionally, sex offenders with previous sexual arrests or more than one nonsexual arrest were more likely to commit another sexual offense. These sources were used in the development of the program profile: Study 1 Zgoba, Kristen, and Leonore Simon.

These sources were used in the development of the program profile: Zgoba, Kristen, and Jill Levinson. Zgoba, Kristen. PhD diss. Newark, NJ: Rutgers University. Following are CrimeSolutions. The practice is rated Promising for reducing rates of general recidivism and sexual recidivism, but rated No Effects on violent recidivism rates. Reentry programs involve treatment or services that have been initiated while the individual is in custody and a follow-up component after the individual is released.

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